Dry Stone Walling Bursary Training Portfolio

16.07.18 - 12.07.19

P. Jeyacheya

Workbook Two

Workbook Two consists of five questions. Together the questions cover a range of topics that are useful to a dry stone waller. Questions 1 & 2 cover the classification of rocks and how to calcuate the volumes & tonnage needed for building a dry stone wall. Questions 3 & 4 cover the structure of a dry stone wall and the potential faults that could occur for a number of reasons. The final question looks at how a dry stone wall provides habitat for a variety of organisms.

The answers are mostly highlights and are not intended to give a full understanding of all the topics covered. Instead they serve as an introduction that should be build on over time and with experience.

Workbook 2: Rock Classification


Give an example of walling stone for each rock classification and type and describe its characteristics:

Rock Classification

Walling Stone - Type
Caithness Flagstone
Old & New Red
York Stone

Rock Classification
Naturally porous allowing rainwater to enter and leave the stone easily
Most are easy to dress with a walling hammer
Hard and durable where the quartx content is high

Rock Classification

Walling Stone - Type

Irregular non-bedded lumps
Usually hard, dense, brittle and splintery
Good for single-stone-width walls
Create distinctive uncoursed random wall

Rock Classification
Formed through the alteration of other rock types through: geological time, heat and pressure

Walling Stone - Type
Kirby Stone

Hard crystal structure
Lack porosity
Have 'cleavage planes'
Easier to split along bedding planes
Dense and durable


From your experience, which type of stone could you use for for the following wall types:

Field walling


Garden walls

Blue forest marble
Bradford Delph

Decorative features

Bedded sandstones
Kirby stone

Contact Us

Don’t put your project on hold. If you would like to know more about our dry stone walling services, then email us directly  on or call us at 077 5321 8045.

Alternatively, you can fill out our contact form here here.


Our Services

Projects covered include:

  • Free estimates & quotations
  • Traditional dry stone walling
  • Retaining Walls
  • Cheek ends / wall heads
  • Garden walls
  • Field Walls
  • Gap Repairs
  • New walls with new or reclaimed stone
  • Boundary walls
  • Ornamental walls feature walls
  • Dry stone walls with mortared coping stones
  • Mortared walls

Areas We Cover

Lancashire boroughs of

  • Rossendale
  • Blackburn with Darwen
  • Hyndburn
  • Burnley
  • Pendle
  • and further afield ...

Services also extended to our nearest neighbours in:

  • Todmorden
  • Hebden Bridge
  • Sowerby Bridge
  • Littleborough
  • ...and everywhere within that geographical circle


Professional member of the Dry Stone Walling Association of Great Britain (DSWA).

I am a member of the Otley & Yorkshire Dales Branch of the DSWA.

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